Ronnie Mooney*, Roderick Williams

Institute of Biomedical and Environmental Health Research, University of the West of Scotland, School of Health and Life Sciences, High Street, Paisley, PA1 2BE, Scotland, UK

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight threatening infection caused by the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba. This infection is largely associated with contact lens wear and the recent increase in AK incidences highlights the ineffectiveness of existing curative and preventative treatments. Current curative and protective treatments being active in part, only against the infective trophozoites and often inducing their conversion to the protective cysts is a major issue, particularly when the latter are the main cause of disease resurgences and relapses. These point to the need for the discovery of new drugs for curative and preventive treatments. Two structurally similar chemical classes, alkylphosphocholines (APCs) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) that address these issues will be discussed in this review.

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Rimsha Sarosh1*, Omar Rashid2, Parsa Sarosh3

1Consultant, Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, MBBS, MS, FPOS. Dr Manzoor Eye Care Centre,28-Wazir Bagh, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir,190008.

2Consultant, Cornea and Refractive Surgery, MBBS, MS, FCRS, Dr Manzoor Eye Care Center, 28, Wazir Bagh, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India- 190010.

3PhD scholar, B-TECH, MSc Electronics. Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India -190006.

Purpose: To assess the therapeutic significance of patching, in patients of intermittent exotropia in relation to control of deviation, absolute measurements and stereopsis.

Material and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Strabismus and Paediatric ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Seventeen patients underwent patching of the dominant eye or alternate occlusion in case of no ocular preference, for a duration of 6 hours / day. Objective Prism cover test measurements, stereopsis evaluation and three point control of deviation scoring were done before and after the 6 months duration. Paired samples t test and Stuart-Maxwell marginal homogeneity test were employed for analysis.

Results: The mean near and distance deviation was 20.35 +/- 4.663 S.D and 21.18+/- 6.885 S.D improving to 13.82 +/- 5.065 S.D and 19.49+/- 5.478 S.D respectively (p<0.001). Angle of strabismus showed a positive trend and decline for near as well as distance measurements with conversion of exotropia subtypes into pseudo divergence excess. Improvement in stereopsis was noted with fine stereopsis of 60 sec seen in 14 patients (82.35%) post patching as against 9 patients (52.94%) before starting the treatment.(p=0.03). Control grading showed a significant improvement with 11 patients (64.70%) attaining a score of 1, whereas before the start of patching the majority i.e 10 patients (58.82%) had a control score of 3.(p=0.004)

Conclusion: Patching induces improvement in degree of control, stereopsis and reduction in angle of deviation.

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Aniket Nikam, Hannah Lefumat, Elidia Grondin, and Vinona Bhatia*

Tilak Healthcare, 74 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France

Digital tools for remote monitoring have revolutionized the current landscape of healthcare delivery. With the advent of smartphones and tablets, the development of mobile medical applications (apps) has created a new dimension in telemedicine. While there are a variety of “wellness apps” available to the general public, only some of them have undergone rigorous human factors testing and clinical validation and require the recommendation of a clinician to be used for remote monitoring. In this article, we specifically review the utility of a mobile medical application called OdySight, which is being recommended by ophthalmologists throughout France for patients with chronic eye diseases.

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Joaquín I. Oporto1*, Antonia Mori1, Jorge Oporto2

1Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

2Fundación Oftalmológica Los Andes, La Serena, Chile

Non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR) is a rare non-inflammatory immune mediated disease caused by circulating autoantibodies against the retina. Its mechanisms are still not fully understood. It is characterized by bilateral, often symmetric, rapidly progressive visual loss, visual field defects and photoreceptor dysfunction. Fundoscopy is usually unaltered in the early stages, and full field electroretinogram (ERG), visual field, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and fluorescein angiography may help with the diagnosis. Determination of circulating antibodies is crucial, as well as ruling-out any possible malignancy with a full physical examination and complimentary exams. Early and aggressive treatment is crucial to prevent further retinal damage. More studies are needed in order to determine more accurate diagnostic criteria, better management and follow-up that could preserve visual function and even improve it.

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Daniel J Lindegger, Misha Pless*

Eye Clinic of the Hospital of Canton of Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland

This article comprises a historical review on the discovery of the visual cortex in the human brain. Studies of wartime victims by Inouye and Holmes, animal and imaging studies are discussed. The phenomenon of macular and temporal crescent sparing and its anatomical basis are explained. A unique case from our neuro-ophthalmological practice is presented and interpreted in light of the key studies.

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Li Zhenghao, Su Yang, Li Siqi, Yi Guoguo*, Fu Min#

Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China

Demodex infection on ocular surface is a common ocular parasitic disease, which harms patients' physical and mental health and quality of life. Studies show that the incidence of ocular Demodex in diabetic patients is higher than that in normal people, and as the incidence of diabetes increases year by year, the ocular Demodex infection also increases, making it a disease that impairs the normal function of the eye of diabetic patients. However, the mechanism of diabetic ocular surface Demodex infection is still unclear and the treatment method is single and lacking. And there is no unified standard and lack of clinical data on the prognosis of patients. It needs more concern of patients and even endocrinologists and ophthalmologists. This article summarizes and analyzes the recent studies on diabetes and ocular surface Demodex infection in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

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